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HM 450.02 Francis Turbine
Education / GUNT Hamburg / Fluid Mechanics and Hydrology / Hydraulic Fluid Energy Machines /

The Francis turbine is part of the reaction turbines which convert the pressure energy of water into kinetic energy in the control device and in the impeller. Francis turbines are used at medium heads and large water flows. The turbine power is controlled by adjusting the vanes in the control device. In practice, Francis turbines are used in run-of-the river power stations and in storage power stations.
  The Francis turbine HM 450.02 is an accessory for the HM 450C trainer. The experimental unit consists of the Francis wheel, the control device with adjustable guide vanes, a band brake for loading the turbine and the spiral housing with a transparent front panel. The transparent cover enables you to observe the water flow, the wheel and the guide vanes during operation. The angle of incidence and the cross section of flow are adapted to the speed and power of the turbine by adjusting the guide vanes.

  The pressure at the turbine inlet is recorded with a pressure sensor. A force sensor and a speed sensor are attached to the band brake. Thus, the mechanical power output of the turbine can be determined. Speed, torque and pressure are displayed on the switch cabinet of HM 450C and processed further in the software. Water supply and flow rate measurement are provided by HM 450C.

  The well-structured instructional material sets out the fundamentals and provides a step-by-step guide through the experiments.

Learning Objectives / Experiments

- determination of mechanical output
- determination of efficiency
- recording of characteristic curves
- investigation of the influence of the guide vane

  position on the power output
- velocity triangles


[1] recording the curves of a Francis turbine and investigating the influence of the guide vane position
[2] transparent front panel for observing the operating area
[3] loading the turbine by use of the band brake
[4] Adjustable guide vanes for setting different angles of incidence
[5] recording the torque via band brake and force sensor
[6] force sensor at the turbine inlet
[7] speed, torque and pressure displayed on the switch cabinet of HM 450C
[8] water supply, flow rate measurement and data processing software via HM 450C


Technical Data

- output: approx. 350W at 1500min-1, 270L/min,
- max. speed: 3000min-1
- impeller
  11 vanes
  medium diameter: 60mm 
- control wheel
  7 vanes
  angle of incidence: 0...20° 


Measuring ranges
- speed: 0...3000min-1
- torque: 0...10Nm
- pressure: 0...4bar abs.


Dimensions and Weight
LxWxH: 650x500x520mm
Weight: approx. 38kg
Scope of Delivery
1 experimental unit
1 set of instructional material
Order Details
070.45002  HM 450.02  Francis Turbine