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HM 450.01 Pelton Turbine
Education / GUNT Hamburg / Fluid Mechanics and Hydrology / Hydraulic Fluid Energy Machines /

The Pelton turbine is part of the free-jet resp. impulse turbines which convert the pressure energy of water into kinetic energy entirely in the control device. Pelton turbines are used at large heads and relatively low water flows. The turbine power is adjusted by means of the nozzle cross-section. In practice, Pelton turbines are used for driving synchronous generators, where they run at constant speed. 
  The Pelton turbine HM 450.01 is an accessory for the HM 450C trainer. The experimental unit consists of the Pelton wheel, a needle nozzle used as control device, a band brake for loading the turbine and a housing with a transparent front panel. The transparent cover enables you to observe the water flow, the wheel and the nozzle during operation. You can change the nozzle cross-section and thus the flow rate by adjusting the nozzle needle.

  The pressure at the turbine inlet is recorded with a pressure sensor. A force sensor and a speed sensor are attached to the band brake. Thus, the mechanical power output of the turbine can be determined. Speed, torque and pressure are displayed on the switch cabinet of HM 450C and processed further in the software. Water supply and flow rate measurement are provided by HM 450C.

  The well-structured instructional material sets out the fundamentals and provides a step-by-step guide through the experiments.

Learning Objectives / Experiments

- determination of mechanical output
- determination of efficiency
- recording of characteristic curves
- investigation of the influence of the nozzle cross-

  section on the power output


[1] recording the curves of a Pelton turbine and investigating the influence of the nozzle cross-section
[2] transparent front panel for observing the operating area
[3] loading the turbine by use of an air-cooled band brake
[4] adjustable nozzle needle for setting different nozzle cross-sections
[5] non-contact speed measurement at the turbine shaft and force sensor at the brake for measuring the torque
[6] force sensor at the turbine inlet
[7] speed, torque and pressure displayed on the switch cabinet of HM 450C
[8] water supply, flow rate measurement and data processing software via HM 450C


Technical Data

- output: approx. 350W  at 1000min-1, 150L/min,
- max. speed: 1500min-1
- impeller
  14 vanes
  medium diameter: 165mm


Measuring ranges
- speed: 0...1500min-1
- torque: 0...10Nm
- pressure: 0...4bar abs.


Dimensions and Weight
LxWxH: 660x570x400mm
Weight: approx. 38kg
Scope of Delivery
1 experimental unit
1 set of instructional material
Order Details
070.45001  HM 450.01  Pelton Turbine