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HM 152 Potential Flow
Education / GUNT Hamburg / Fluid Mechanics and Hydrology / Flow around Bodies /

The laminar, two-dimensional flow in HM 152 is a good approximation of the flow of ideal fluids: the potential flow. All physical systems described with the Laplace equation can be demonstrated with potential flow. This includes heat flow and potential theory, for example.
  The core element of the HM 152 trainer is a classical Hele-Shaw cell with additional water connections for sources and sinks. The laminar, two-dimensional flow is achieved by water flowing at low speed in a narrow gap between two parallel glass plates. The flow generated in this way is non-vortical and can be regarded as potential flow. The streamlines are displayed in colour by injecting a contrast medium (ink).
  In experiments an interchangeable model is inserted into the flow, such as a cylinder, guide vane profile or nozzle contour. Sources and sinks are generated via eight water connections in the bottom glass plate. The streamlines can be clearly observed on the screened glass during flow around and through. 
  A flow straightener ensures consistent and low-turbulence flow. The water flow and the amount of contrast medium injected can be adjusted by using valves. The water connections are also activated by valves and can be combined as required. 
  The well-structured instructional material sets out the fundamentals and provides a step-by-step guide through the experiments.


Learning Objectives / Experiments

- visualisation of streamlines in 
  * flow around drag bodies: cylinder, guide vane

    profile, square, rectangle
  * flow through models: nozzle contour,

    sudden contraction or enlargement 
  * flow separation, flow with 90° redirection
- sources and sinks: interference, formation of

  Rankine half-bodies, demonstration of a dipole 
- transfer of the potential flow to physical systems

  according to Laplace


[1] simulation of potential flow in a Hele-Shaw cell for visualising streamlines
[2] water as flowing medium and ink as contrast medium
[3] Hele-Shaw cell made of two parallel glass plates with narrow gap
[4] upper glass plate, hinged for interchanging models
[5] bottom glass plate with water connections for generating sources/sinks 
[6] sources/sinks arranged in a cross shape, can be combined as required  
[7] screening in the bottom glass panel for optimal observation of the streamlines
[8] various models are included: cylinder, square, rectangle, guide vane profile, various models for changes in cross sections
[9] flow straightener ensures consistent and low-turbulence flow
[10] flow velocity, water supply and water drain in sources/sinks as well as dosage of the contrast medium can be adjusted by using valves


Technical Data

2 glass plates: LxW: 910x591mm
- distance between the plates: 5mm
- bottom glass plate with eight water connections for

- 6 drag bodies
- 2 changes in cross section
- material: rubber
- thickness 5mm
Injection of contrast medium (ink)
- 19 nozzles
Tank for contrast medium: 200ml


Dimensions and Weight
LxWxH: 1.400x810x1.310mm
Weight: approx. 140kg
Required for Operation
Water connection 300L/h, drain
Scope of Delivery
1 trainer
1 set of models (drag body, changes in cross section)
Ink, 1L
1 set of instructional material
Order Details
070.15200  HM 152  Potential Flow