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HM 150.19 Operating Principle of a Pelton Turbine
Education / GUNT Hamburg / Fluid Mechanics and Hydrology / Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics /

Water turbines are turbomachines utilising water power. The Pelton turbine is part of the free-jet turbines resp. impulse turbines which convert the pressure energy of water into kinetic energy entirely in the control device. During the conversion, the water jet is accelerated in a nozzle and directed onto the vanes of the Pelton wheel tangential. The water jet is redirected by approximately 180° in the vanes. The impulse of the water jet is transmitted to the Pelton wheel.
  HM 150.19 is the model of a Pelton turbine demonstrating the function of an impulse turbine.

  The experimental unit consists of the Pelton wheel, a needle nozzle used as control device, a band brake for loading the turbine and a housing with a transparent front panel. The transparent cover enables you to observe the water flow, the wheel and the nozzle during operation. You can modify the nozzle cross-section and thus the flow rate by adjusting the nozzle needle. 

  The turbine torque is determined by force measurement on a band brake and is read on spring balances. For measuring the rotational speed, a non-contact speed sensor, e.g. HM 082, is required. A manometer shows the water pressure at the turbine inlet.

  The experimental unit is positioned on the working surface of the HM 150 Base Module in a simple and safe manner. The water supply and flow rate measurement are provided via HM 150. Alternatively, the experimental unit can be supplied by the laboratory supply.

  The well-structured instructional material sets out the fundamentals and provides a step-by-step guide through the experiments.


Learning Objectives / Experiments

- design and function of a Pelton turbine
- determination of torque, power and efficiency 
- graphical representation of characteristic curves for

  torque, power and efficiency 

[1] function of a Pelton turbine
[2] transparent front panel for observing the operating area
[3] loading the turbine by use of the band brake
[4] adjustable nozzle needle for setting different nozzle cross-sections
[5] marking on brake drum for non-contact speed measurement 
[6] instruments: spring balances for determining the torque, manometer shows pressure at turbine inlet
[7] flow rate determination by HM 150 Base Module
[8] water supply using HM 150 Base Module or via laboratory supply
Technical Data

Pelton turbine 
- output: 5W at 500min-1, approx. 30L/min, H=2m
- impeller
  14 vanes 
  vane width: 33,5mm
  external diameter: 132mm
Needle nozzle
- jet diameter: 10mm


Measuring ranges
- braking force (spring balance): 10N
- pressure: 0...1bar


Dimensions and Weight
LxWxH: 400x400x620mm
Weight: approx. 15kg
Required for Operation
HM 150 (closed water circuit) or water supply, drainage
Scope of Delivery
1 experimental unit
1 set of instructional material
Order Details

070.15019  HM 150.19  Operating Principle of a Pelton Turbine