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HM 150.15 Hydraulic Ram Pumping Using Water Hammers
Education / GUNT Hamburg / Fluid Mechanics and Hydrology / Examples of Transient Flow /

Abruptly interrupting the water flow can cause water hammers in the pipeline. This generally undesired effect is used specifically in special equipment (hydraulic ram) to raise water to a higher level. Unlike conventional pumps, no additional mechanical drive is required here.
  HM 150.15 can be used to demonstrate the formation and effect of water hammers and to study how a hydraulic ram works. The water is fed to the ram via a long pipe at a gradient. 
  Above a certain water velocity the outlet valve in the ram closes automatically, due to the flow forces. This happens suddenly, so that the kinetic energy of the water in the pipe is converted into potential pressure energy. The pressure opens a non-return valve and the water flows into an air vessel. The air cushion in the air vessel dampens the water hammer and ensures a uniform lift into the elevated tank. After the water hammer has subsided, the outlet valve opens due to the dead weight, the water in the pipe starts to flow again and the process repeats itself.
  The operation of the outlet valve as a function of the weight load, the valve lift and the flow rate is studied. Furthermore, it is possible to shown how the volume of air in the air vessel affects the lift. 
  Valves are used to adjust the flow rate. Transparent tank, a visible non-return valve in the air vessel and the visible movement of the outlet valve all permit excellent observation of the function. All components are clearly mounted on a front plate.
  The water is supplied and flow rate measured by the base module HM 150. Alternatively, the experimental unit can be operated by the laboratory supply.
  The well-structured instructional material sets out the fundamentals and provides a step-by-step guide through the experiments.


Learning Objectives / Experiments

- demonstrate formation and effect of water

- principle of a ram
- function of an air vessel
- effect of air volume in the air vessel and the flow

  velocity on the pump behaviour
- efficiency analysis


[1] formation and effect of water hammers
[2] pumping using water hammers
[3] fixed overflow tank is used as a water source, e.g. river, pool
[4] elevated tank with variable pump head
[5] outlet valve with adjustable lift, closes cyclically due to flow force of the water
[6] tank with non-return valve and air volume is used as an air vessel 
[7] air volume in the air vessel is varied by vent valve
[8] flow rate measurement using base module
HM 150

[9] closed water supply using base module HM 150 or via lab supply


Technical Data

- max. head 0,27m
- max. flow rate: 90L/h


Dimensions and Weight
LxWxH: 1.100x640x1.400mm
Weight: approx. 57kg
Required for Operation
HM 150 (closed water circuit) or water supply, drainage
Scope of Delivery

1 experimental unit

2 hoses
1 set of instructional material

Order Details

070.15015  HM 150.15  Hydraulic Ram – Pumping Using Water Hammers